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2. A Few Historical Evidences

Emilie Arrago

jeudi 15 octobre 2009

In the Darrang Rajavamsavali, a historical chronicle in Assamese written during the reign of the Koch kingdom, mention is made about the discovery of this temple in ruins in the middle of the jungle by Biswa Singha. Moreover, a passage is explicit about the material used for the reconstruction of the temple :

prŏthŏme śilār mŏṭh nirmmān kŏrilā

ek rātri thāki xito khŏxiyā pŏrilā (539 b)

punŏrŏpi xehi mŏṭh nirmmān kŏranta

rajanī antare punu khŏxiyā pŏranta (540 a)

(…)

devī bole :

pūrbbe moṭh jŏbŏne bhāñilā

āru kaliyuga āxi āpuni mililā (542 a)

eteke śilār mŏṭh nuhikanta bhāl

kumāre pāgok iṭā bāndi agniśal (542 b)

xehi iṭā āni taṇi gritat bhājibi

kŏrāl pāgiyā mŏṭh nirmmān kŏribi (543 a)

First, the temple was made with stone (śilā)

After one night, it fell down

Again this temple was constructed

After one night, it fell down again

The goddess said :

“Before Jobon (Muslim ?) broke the temple

and now it is the Kaliyuga which have arrived

therefore the stone temple is not good

let the potter bake the bricks in the fire place

you will fry the bricks (iṭā) with ghee

make the temple by making mortar (kŏrāl) ”

JPEG - 39.6 ko
CR F. Jacquesson
Rock Inscription inside the temple in the section of the Calanta : Patronage of the Koch dynasty, 1565. (for the translation cf. History of the Koch kingdom, D. Nath, 1989 : 210)
GIF - 4.3 ko
Detail of the sculpture in the Calanta section :
the two brothers of the Koch dynasty are represented (7 and 10) by the side of gods, goddesses and epic’s characters.

1. Mangol Chandi (incarnation de Durga).

9. Durnacharya (Maître dans le Mahabharata)

2. Kalki avatar (incarnation de Visnu).

10. Chilaray (frère du roi Koch)

3. Yudhishthir. Frère ainé des Pandavas.

11. Nila Khanta Mahadev

4. Ramachandra (incarnation de Visnu).

12. Nandi (assistant de Siva)

5. Bathuk Bhairava (Siva enfant)

13. Bhringi (assistant de Siva)

6. Narayan Gopal

14. Kapil Muni (ascète)

7. Naranarayana (roi Koch)

15. Manasa. 

8. Annapurna (Déesse liée à la nourriture).

16. Jaratkar Muni.

The last and wider chamber, known as Natmandira (in Sanskrit, mandira is “the residence” or even “the temple” while nata designates “the act of dancing”) and the Mukhamandapa, towards the west of the Calanta section, were constructed later by the Ahom king, Rajesvara Singha in 1759. The Ahom Buranji records the patronage of the goddess that starts from the time of Gadadhar Singha (1681-1696) and which was intensified during Siva Singha’s reign. The later constructed the Kamalesvara temple, located in the right side of the temple of Kamakhya :

JPEG - 8.9 ko
Natmandira (1759)
JPEG - 4.4 ko
CR F. Jacquesson
Rock Inscription in the Natmandira Rajesvara Singha, 1759
JPEG - 10.7 ko
CR-F. Jacquesson
Copperplate Inscription in the Natmandira, 1782 Record of Blood sacrifices offered by Gaurinatha Singha
JPEG - 12.4 ko
Kamalesvara temple (1728 ?)
JPEG - 14.1 ko
Mukhamandapa (1759)

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